Signposts Represent Waters Forward for Taiwan-U.S. Family members

The USA has a sophisticated historical past with Taiwan. The USA involvement with Taiwan stems from choices made all the way through Global Conflict II.

In Global Conflict II, Japan, as a member of the Axis powers, was once engaged in an expansionist force to triumph over important portions of mainland China for uncooked fabrics and assets to feed its home economic system.[1] To oppose the Jap growth, the US supported the separate Chinese language nationwide teams (consisting of Chinese language Nationalists and Communists) that joined in combination of their battle opposed to the Jap.

This fortify manifested in the US allying itself with the Chinese language Nationalist govt led by way of Chiang Kai-Shek. On the other hand, because the conflict raged at the Chinese language Communists won broad swaths of territory.

Within the aftermath of Global Conflict II, the peace between the Chinese language factions ended. Within the resulting Chinese language civil conflict, the Chinese language Communist celebration, led by way of Mao Tse-tung, won keep an eye on of mainland China.  Chiang Kai-Shek fled together with his Nationalist supporters to Taiwan, or the Republic of China. Each leaders professed to be the real consultant of the Chinese language other folks.

Table of Contents

Ancient Background

Previous to 1979, the US formally known Taiwan because the capital of the Republic of China in response to the Sino-American Mutual Protection Treaty.[2] Pursuant to this treaty, the US promised to come back to the protection of Taiwan will have to every other nation, corresponding to China, try to triumph over it via an invasion. Identity. From 1955 to 1979, China understood that any navy motion that it took opposed to Taiwanese independence would cause an armed reaction from the US.

Subsequently, all the way through this era, Taiwan was once safe from a Chinese language invasion.

Then in 1979, President Jimmy Carter unilaterally nullified the Sino-American Mutual Protection Treaty.[3] The transfer formally got rid of United States’ popularity of Taiwan’s sovereignty as an impartial nation. The nullification of the treaty was once executed to make stronger financial ties with Mainland China.

In reaction, Congress moved rapidly in this matter and handed the Taiwan Family members Act which assured that the US would safeguard the peace of the Taiwanese country.[4]

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Commenting at the motion taken by way of Congress, then Senator Jacob Javits voiced the sentiment of many legislators when he stated, “…the vital level is that we will have to substantively offer protection to our duty to Taiwan, and it’s in our easiest nationwide hobby to take action.”[5]

Whilst the language within the Taiwan Family members Act stopped in need of ensuring an armed reaction, below the regulation, the US must supply some type of help to Taiwan to keep its sovereignty and peace if it had been attacked [presumptively by China]. Identity.

Coverage of Taiwan is a idea obviously enunciated within the legislative intent of the Taiwan Family members Act.

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The present Taiwanese independence and coverage subject is fairly paying homage to Poland’s place within the past due Thirties going through unbridled aggression from Nazi Germany. Nice Britain and France promised to claim conflict if Germany attacked Poland. On the other hand, after Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939, neither Nice Britain nor France deployed troops to Polish soil to rebuff the assault and repair Poland’s sovereignty.

The promise of help was once an empty promise for which the Polish other folks paid dearly. Historical past teaches us that an ambiguous coverage of help is not going to forestall bare aggression. From a diplomatic viewpoint, a less assailable stance and clearer coverage in fortify of Taiwan independence and statehood is warranted.

Taiwan is an Impartial State

In world regulation, a state is an impartial and sovereign entity that has an outlined territory; an enduring inhabitants; exists below the keep an eye on of its personal govt; and that engages in formal family members with different such entities. Relaxation. 3d of the Overseas Family members Legislation of the US, segment 201 (2021).

A territory that resembles a state will have to have sovereign independence. The territory can not fall below the keep an eye on of every other state. Consequently, a state within the world area is equivalent sooner than the regulation and entitled to the equivalent coverage within the workout of rights. Relaxation. 3d of the Overseas Family members Legislation of the US, segment 206 (2021). A state is similarly sure to satisfy its duties. Within the nineteenth century, scholarly concept evolved the perception that the state can simplest be subjected to extraterritorial regulation by way of its personal consent.

Even though Taiwan has now not formally declared itself as a state, the country and its corresponding govt complies with the entire required indicia to qualify as a state below permitted norms of world regulation. It’s the this very de facto qualification as an impartial state that reasons China such angst. China is afraid that if Taiwan announces it independence, then the remainder of the sector will briefly admire that declaration, some degree from which any motion by way of China to exert keep an eye on and affect would flout world regulation.

“Beneath world regulation, a state is an entity that has an outlined territory and an enduring inhabitants, below the keep an eye on of its personal govt, and that engages in, or has the capability to interact in, formal family members with different such entities.” Supra, see Be aware 12. The definition breaks down into standards that lend credence to the popularity of Taiwanese sovereignty.

First, sovereignty exists when govt officers in a single state are unfastened from the keep an eye on of presidency officers in different states. Relaxation. 3d of the Overseas Family members Legislation of the US, segment 201 remark b (2021). When it comes to Taiwan, the territory has its personal govt this is elected by way of the folks residing in Taiwan. A excellent comparability to turn that sovereignty exists is to match Taiwan’s govt to that of Hong Kong. Whilst Hong Kong’s leaders are elected in the community, Carrie Lam, the present chief of the Hong Kong govt, solutions to Chinese language govt officers. Against this, in Taiwan, the federal government officers also are elected in the community. On the other hand, the adaptation is that the federal government officers in Taiwan actively pursue insurance policies and projects that contradict the insurance policies and desires of China.

The following criterion calls for that inside of a specified space, the prescription and enforcement of criminal laws are vested solely within the govt of the territory. Supra, Be aware 12. In this level, the elected govt of Taiwan workout routines keep an eye on via its nationwide govt, police, and armed forces over Taiwan’s geographically claimed land.

The 3rd criterion calls for that govt officers act freely to set coverage absent keep an eye on by way of every other state. Analysis of this criterion garners numerous rivalry. Taiwan’s govt again and again pursues insurance policies which might be designed to give protection to its sovereignty and independence. On the other hand, China maintains that Taiwan is an inherent a part of China, and it’s China that has the overall say on choices referring to Taiwan’s insurance policies. On the other hand, this stance by way of China is additional sophisticated by way of China’s mentioned coverage of “One Nation, Two Methods”.[6]  Via this coverage, China granted the territory of Taiwan semi-autonomous

standing maintaining in thoughts that reunification of Taiwan with China was once and is all the time the tip objective.

The result’s {that a} strict constructionist studying of the federal government freely surroundings coverage requirement mandates a conclusion that Taiwan satisfies this situation as a result of Taiwan constantly pursues governmental time table pieces opposite to China’s needs.

For the fourth criterion, within the world area, a state provides up a portion of its sovereign authority by way of coming into a treaty or taking part in a global group. World Legislation acknowledges this cession of energy and resolution making as a feature of an impartial state throughout the workout of its capability to go into into world agreements and to grow to be a member of world organizations. Relaxation. 3d The Overseas Family members Legislation of the US, segment 206(b) (2021).

Taiwan has entered a lot of treaties such because the Basic Settlement at the Software of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures[7]; the TRIPS Settlement[8], Organic Guns Conference[9]; and the Settlement on Technical Obstacles to Industry[10]. Taiwan additionally won club into the Global Industry Group.[11] Analysis of this criterion on coming into world agreements and organizations weighs in prefer of characterizing Taiwan as a state.

The overall criterion for sovereignty calls for {that a} territory achieve from relationships by way of gaining access to new assets, criminal alternatives, and build up its position in deciding problems that impact its nationwide pursuits. To evaluate whether or not or now not this situation is met, the next query will have to be responded within the affirmative: Does the territory’s govt get a seat on the desk when choices are made concerning the territory or the area?

Analysis of this side of statehood weighs in prefer of categorizing Taiwan as a state. Since 2002, Taiwan has taken affirmative measures to sign up for world organizations in addition to world agreements all whilst expanding its position in Asian-Pacific affairs. Just lately, Taiwan officially implemented for club within the 11 member CPTPP. China upon finding out of Taiwan’s pending utility, as a way to block world popularity of Taiwan independence and sovereignty, submitted its personal utility to sign up for the CPTPP forward of Taiwan’s submission by way of only some days.[12] The management of the CPTPP lets in any member to dam the admission of a brand new potential member with a veto of the appliance. Identity. China’s transfer to dam Taiwan’s access into the CPTPP with both a veto; on its own as a brand new member, or via sturdy arm persuasion ways directed on the present CPTPP contributors isn’t a surprise making an allowance for the extra comfortable requirement wanted for world statehood, popularity.

Popularity in world regulation is the doctrine that represents formal acknowledgement by way of every other state than an entity possesses the {qualifications} for statehood and implies a dedication to regard that entity as a state. It’s important to notice that below world regulation, an entity that satisfies the necessities for statehood is a state whether or not its statehood is officially known by way of different states or now not. Relaxation. 3d The Overseas Family members Legislation of the US, segment 202, feedback a and b, (2021).

In essence, China is wielding its world financial affect in making an attempt to dam Taiwan’s access into the CPTPP to deprive Taiwan of the standing that it already holds by way of combating different states from coming into into formal commerce agreements with Taiwan. Japan, the present chair of the CPTPP, welcomed and strongly subsidized Taiwan’s utility for club into the commerce pact to counter China’s affect on commerce within the area.[13]

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Preliminary polling of the CPTPP contributors display that along with Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, and Australia fortify Taiwan’s admission. The state possibly to contest Taiwan admission is Malaysia. The rest contributors, Canada, Mexico, Brunei, Chile, Peru, and Vietnam, have now not expressed perspectives on acceptance or rejecting Taiwan’s utility for admission. Supra, Be aware 13.

Is Taiwan About to be Invaded by way of China?

China’s movements not too long ago function a testomony to the will for now not simply guarantees however significant motion by way of the US to give protection to Taiwanese independence.

In January 2019, the Chinese language President, Xi Jingping, made a speech by which he unequivocally mentioned that China would use drive if essential to reunite Taiwan with mainland China.[14] China’s movements previous to and next to President Xi’s speech fortify this competitive stance and function a risk to the nationwide safety and peace of Taiwan.

For example, in 2018 China engaged in a chain of acts opposed to Taiwan rightfully perceived as confrontational. China despatched opponents and bombers from its air drive to violate Taiwanese airspace, which brought about Taiwan to scramble its jets in reaction.[15] In April 2018, China launched photos of its military carrying out a ridicule invasion of a Taiwanese village.[16] Then in June 2018, the Chinese language military performed navy drills within the Taiwan Strait simulating an invasion of Taiwan.[17] In August 2018, China issued a rebuke to the US looking for to dam Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen’s talk over with to the Nationwide Air & Area Management (NASA).[18]

Movements within the final six months display an build up in competitive and perilous acts from China towards Taiwan. On June 15, 2021, and on September 5, 2021, China once more despatched a big armada of airplane into airspace adjoining to Taiwan, which brought about Taiwan to scramble fighter jets to look at and offer protection to its airspace.[19] Just lately, on September 26, 2021, in an ever-threatening transfer, China renewed its declare to Taiwan as an integral a part of China and refused to acknowledge its independence and sovereignty.[20]

China’s openly provocative acts had been accompanied by way of a diplomatic technique in commerce that has led a lot of Taiwan’s allies to isolate and sever ties with the rustic to foment an economically filthy rich courting with China.[21]

Jointly, President Xi’s speeches; the provocative navy strikes; and the industrial isolation ship a transparent message that China is pursuing a trail designed to succeed in repossession of Taiwan’s territory and tradition. With the proverbial noose tightening, Taiwan, particularly after looking at the series of occasions in Hong Kong[22], could also be compelled into the location of stating independence from China to give protection to its sovereignty and democracy.

The possibility of crisis exists if the problem of Taiwanese independence isn’t treated with sound coverage choices, international relations, and forethought in lieu of as a response to competitive financial and armed forces strikes by way of China.

Because the passage of the Taiwan Family members Act, other U.S. administrations have taken other approaches to international coverage with appreciate to Taiwan. Some administrations have at once supplied Taiwan with the assets that it must mount a defensive posture opposed to Chinese language aggression. Different administrations pursued a extra muted coverage designed to assuage mainland China during which the US didn’t provide important navy {hardware}.

Right through the Trump Management, there have been advisers who preferred offering giant price tag navy pieces corresponding to opponents for an air drive, armed drones, and good mines. The ones advisers confronted pushback in response to the previous president’s mentioned place of asking the US’ allies to extend their very own spending on self-defense as opposed to depending on pricey navy support provided by way of the US on the expense of its taxpayers. Finally, the US bought greater than $1.8 billion value of hands to Taiwan which was once considerably greater than earlier administrations.[23]

An exam of various administrations’ insurance policies towards Taiwan since President Carter’s abandonment of the Sino-American Mutual Protection Treaty displays a checklist of inconsistent long-term coverage towards Taiwanese independence and the scope of navy support supplied by way of other United States Presidents. Consequently, some 40 years on since abandonment of the Sino-American treaty, the U.S. nonetheless does now not have a transparent coverage at the scope of help to be rendered to Taiwan to give protection to its sovereignty and independence if the rustic had been attacked as a part of a reclamation effort by way of China.

The inconsistency is a results of the sovereignty limbo that Taiwan has existed inside of since 1951. For many years, Taiwan branded itself because the capital of China when actually Taiwan has been and remains to be an impartial state empowered and imbued with sovereignty and the correct to make a decision its personal affairs. China, as a part of its two techniques one country coverage, sees Taiwan as an extension and territory matter to its governance.

Inspecting the industrial have an effect on of an ambiguous help coverage lends credence to the basis {that a} clearer stance is wanted. In 2019, Taiwan’s Gross Home product (GDP) was once estimated at $586.1 billion with a inhabitants of 24 million other folks.[24] Industry between the US and Taiwan in 2019, was once estimated at $103.9 billion with greater than $40 billion value of commerce exported from the United States and greater than $60 billion value of commerce imported into the United States from Taiwan.[25] For the US, Taiwan is the thirteenth greatest items export marketplace.

Imagine the destructive ramifications to the worldwide aviation business if Taiwan loses its independence. As an example, the aviation business contributes $2.7 Trillion  to the sector gross home product. China Airways, the nationwide airline of Taiwan, operates a fleet of airplane that is composed of 38 Airbus airplane and 51 Boeing airplane.[26] A big shift within the buying conduct of Taiwan may considerably modify this phase of the economic system to the detriment of the United States and Europe. The Chinese language Industrial Aviation Corporate (COMAC) is making important inroads into carving away marketplace percentage from Airbus and Boeing via its gross sales of not too long ago qualified business airliners to firms all over Asia.

If Taiwan had been to be subsumed again into mainland China, then any long run gross sales of industrial airplane would most likely be directed by way of the state towards COMAC. The United States (Boeing) and Europe (Airbus) would lose out on billions of bucks in commerce. Those misplaced gross sales to China would lead to important task loss and a decline in financial exercise inside the aviation sector of each the US and Eu nations. The have an effect on of an unclear coverage on Taiwan incorporates the prospective to do nice hurt to international commerce in addition to Taiwanese and American commerce pursuits.

The failure of now not having a transparent international coverage on easy methods to fortify Taiwan in case of an independence declaration has the prospective to subsume different problems, corresponding to international commerce and immigration, into the field of affect and resolution making. May Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, and California take care of a unexpected mass migration of fleeing Taiwanese other folks looking for to flee Chinese language communist rule or a mindless conflict?

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Imagine how two apparently unrelated problems might be fused in combination to purpose the US to significantly imagine agreeing to sacrifice Taiwan’s independence. First, the U.S. desires the Korean peninsula to be denuclearized. Is the US prepared to forego safeguarding Taiwan independence in change for China’s promise to reign in North Korea to denuclearize and an finish the Korean Conflict? Then again, is the U.S. amenable to sacrificing Taiwanese independence in change for the cessation of Chinese language building on atolls within the South China Sea?

Each strikes would characterize main shifts within the balance of the Asian-Pacific area. The elimination of a nuclear risk blended with the absence of risk of conflict would permit South Korea to entertain the perception of reforming its obligatory navy carrier and most likely recharge reunification talks. Then again, the cessation of Chinese language build-ups within the South China Sea would serve to ensure the safety of open sea lanes for passage of world commerce. One of the most effects could be aid in international insurance coverage charges for the maritime business, which in flip would scale back prices for commerce.

Navigating sophisticated and thorny problems within the realm of world regulation is fraught with difficulties on any given day. On the other hand, with Taiwan’s independence, there’s the actual risk that during a worst-case situation with missteps in international coverage; via inexperience and a failure to understand the results of positive movements, the placement may precipitate into one that pulls American infantrymen into direct, armed warfare with China.

President Biden may paintings with Congress to create after which pursue a coverage that helps Taiwan’s declaration of its independence after which incentivize China to acknowledge Taiwanese independence as a sovereign country. Ignoring the issue isn’t going to make it move away and kicking the proverbial can down the street isn’t going to make resolving the problem more uncomplicated later.

To Reach Lasting Peace Taiwan’s Independence Should be Known International

Whilst the signposts on Taiwan independence characterize afflicted waters forward, what seems to be lacking is a considerate long-term coverage initiative supporting Taiwanese independence and popularity of statehood along side transparent reduce methods to succeed in the ones targets peacefully. As a substitute, the placement has been stoked to a better degree of fervor with the sale of hands to Taiwan in 2020; and the coverage introduced by way of the U.S. State Division in 2021 encouraging federal govt officers to include assembly with Taiwanese officers.

China answered to each strikes by way of expanding its navy actions within the Taiwan Strait; greater incursions into Taiwan airspace, and warnings to the US to not give fortify to these in Taiwan who search to claim formal independence.[27] Coverage makers will have to now not take a seat again and make allowance the placement to spread on China’s timeline with no need a plan. Why now not? For the reason that result will probably be one who sacrifices Taiwanese independence and sovereignty, which has been a elementary a part of the US’ international coverage in Asia since 1949.

[1] Japan’s Quest for Energy and Global Conflict II in Asia, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/particular/japan_1900_power.htm (Remaining accessed Sep. 7, 2021).
[2] What’s the ‘One China’ coverage?, BBC Information, (Feb. 10, 2017), https://www.bbc.com/information/world-asia-china-38285354, final visited Aug. 30, 2021
[3] Terrence Smith, Hyperlink to Taiwan Ends, N.Y. Occasions (Dec. 16, 1978), https://www.nytimes.com/1978/12/16/archives/link-to-taiwan-ends-carter-in-tv-speech-says-we-recognize-reality.html, final visited Aug. 30, 2021
[4] Michael J. Inexperienced, What Is the U.S. “One China” Coverage, and Why Does it Subject?, CSIS: Middle for Strategic and World Research, (Jan. 13, 2017) https://www.csis.org/research/what-us-one-china-policy-and-why-does-it-matter, final visited Aug. 30, 2021
[5] U.S. Senate Comm. On Overseas Family members, Hearings Ahead of the Committee on Overseas Family members United States Senate 90 -6th Congress, U.S. Gov’t Printing Workplace, 11 (1979).
[6] The One Nation, Two Methods coverage was once introduced by way of China within the Fifties as a method of expressing that Taiwan is an inseparable a part of China’s territory. Since 1949, Taiwan has been separated from the mainland politically. To acquire non violent reunification, China seeks to paintings with the federal government of Taiwan to assimilate the Taiwanese other folks and land again into the fold of mainland China via non violent manner and subsequently helps the management of Taiwan via semi-autonomous standing till reunification is discovered. See Ministry of Overseas Affairs of the Folks’s Republic of China, https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18027.shtml (Remaining accessed Sept. 16, 2021).
[7] The Settlement at the Software of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, SPS Settlement, is a global treaty of the WTO that objectives to give protection to human, animal, and plant lifestyles from positive environmental dangers. Taiwan signed directly to this treaty with its acceptance into the WTO on January 1, 2002.
[8] The Settlement on Industry-Comparable Sides of Highbrow Belongings Rights is a global criminal settlement between all member countries of the Global Industry Group that establishes minimal requirements for the legislation of various kinds of highbrow assets. Taiwan joined the WTO on January 1, 2002.
[9] The Organic and Toxin Guns Conference is a disarmament treaty that successfully bans organic and toxin guns by way of prohibiting their construction, manufacturing, acquisition, switch, stockpiling, and use. Taiwan deposited its tool of ratification with the US on February 9, 1973. See Conference at the Prohibition of the Construction, Manufacturing and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Organic) and Toxin Guns and on their Destruction, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/171-BWC-Standing-Desk-5.3.2019.pdf (Remaining accessed Sep. 16, 2021).
[10] The Settlement on Technical Obstacles to Industry, TBT Settlement, is a global treaty administered by way of the Global Industry Group in drive in its provide shape since 1995.
[11] Taiwan joined the Global Industry Group efficient on January 1, 2002.
[12] Lauly Li & Cheng Ting-Fang, China Blasts Taiwan’s bid to sign up for CPTPP commerce pact, Sep. 23, 2021 https://asia.nikkei.com/Economic system/Industry/China-blasts-Taiwan-s-bid-to-join-CPTPP-trade-pact (Remaining accessed Sep. 23, 2021).
[13] Japan Ruling Celebration Lawmakers Again Taiwan Becoming a member of Industry Pact, Isabel Reynolds, et al., Bloomberg Politics (Aug. 26, 20210, https://www.bloomberg.com/information/articles/2021-08-27/china-looms-large-as-japan-taiwan-ruling-parties-talk-security (Remaining Accessed Sep. 16, 2021).
[14] Xi Jinping says Taiwan ‘will have to and will probably be’ reunited with China, BBC NEWS (Jan. 2, 2019), https://www.bbc.com/information/world-asia-china-46733174 (final visited Aug. 30, 2021).
[15] John Ruwitch, China Sends a Document 28 Army Planes Into Airspace Managed by way of Taiwan, NPR (June 15, 2021), https://www.npr.org/2021/06/15/1006921645/china-sends-a-record-28-military-planes-into-airspace-controlled-by-taiwan (final visited Aug. 30, 2021).
[16] Chinese language navy flaunts photos of its tanks destroying ‘Taiwanese troops’ in simulated wrestle amid rising tensions, DailyMail.com (Dec. 18, 2020), https://www.dailymail.co.united kingdom/information/article-9067689/China-flaunts-footage-battle-tanks-engaging-simulated-street-combat-against-Taiwan.html?ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490&ito=1490 (final visited Aug. 30, 2021).
[17] Ben Westcott & Serentie Wang, Xi Jinping sends caution to Taiwan, United States with live-fire drills, CNN (April 16, 2018), https://www.cnn.com/2018/04/15/asia/taiwan-us-china-xi-jinping-drills-intl/index.html (final visited Aug. 30, 2021).
[18] Keoni Everington, The best stuff: Tsai first Taiwanese president to talk over with NASA, Taiwan Information (Aug. 20, 2018), https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/information/3510465 (final visited Aug. 30, 2021).
[19] Taiwan scrambles jets opposed to renewed Chinese language navy exercise, Reuters.com (Sep. 5, 2021),  https://www.reuters.com/industry/aerospace-defense/taiwan-scrambles-jets-against-renewed-chinese-military-activity-2021-09-05/ (final visited Sep. 7, 2021).
[20] Ben Blanchard, China’s Xi warns of ‘grim’ Taiwan subject in letter to opposition, Reuters.com (Sep. 26, 2021), https://www.reuters.com/global/asia-pacifi c/chinas-xi-warns-grim-taiwan-situation-letter-opposition-2021-09-26/ (final visited on Sep. 28, 2021).
[21] Rob Schmitz, Taiwan Loses 2 Extra Allies to China and Scrambles Jets to Monitor Chinese language Bomber Drills, NPR (Might 25, 2018), https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2018/05/25/613620512/china-poaches-2-more-allies-from-taiwan-as-beijing-continues-military-drills (final visited Aug. 30, 2021)
[22] With the passage and implementation of the Nationwide Safety Act, China has effectively squashed the battle to deal with the democratic procedure in Hong Kong.
[23] “US Approves $1.8bn guns sale to Taiwan,” Oct. 22, 2020. (BBC Information).
[24] https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/china/taiwan (Accessed Sept. 6, 2021).
[25] Identity.
[26] Airbus is a Eu airline delivery class airplane producer, and Boeing is an American airline delivery class airplane producer.
[27] “U.S. Problems Tips to Deepen Family members with Taiwan,” Apr. 9, 2021 (Reuters).